To express it more simply, consider the statement,
'This dog is not here.' If I am a dog trainer, and I have a class of
twenty dogs and their owners, and if Mary doesn't show for a class with
her dog, Shep, then I can look in my notebook, put a check by Shep, and
say 'this dog is not here.' And that is a truthful statement. But if I'm
referring to the word 'dog' in the statement 'This dog is not here,'
then I have just created a paradox. The dog, in the statement, is
present, by stating 'this dog,' but the dog is not present by stating
'not here.' The word 'dog' is here, but it's not here.
It can be concluded that this paradox is a matter of
semantics. Depending on how the word 'this' is used will determine
whether the paradox will remain in Ispace or if it will translate to
In terms of set theory, a new set has been created by
utilizing the correct definition of the word 'this.' Now, there is a set
of all the false statements in the near vicinity.
The Creton Paradox
Again, the following paradox is one of those that is
created by referring to itself in a sentence.
Consider the Cretan paradox: a Cretan said, "All
Cretans are liars." It is easy to understand the confusion in this
statement. If he is lying, then all Cretans must be truthful, but if
he is telling the truth, then all Cretans are liars, which includes
This paradox is easy to solve once it is translated to
reality. If a person is standing on a corner talking to a Cretan,
and the Cretan says, "All Cretans are liars," then the person
listening will immediately assume that the Cretan is stating an
exaggeration, because no one, including Cretans, will be lying in
every instance of time, and with every statement they make.
At the time that he makes the statement, he is
including himself by using the word 'all,' but he is being truthful
in that instance, because he believes that Cretans lie most of the
As a note: if the Cretan were to say, "All Cretans are
liars all the time," then that would be a gross exaggeration, and
the paradox could only be solved by replacing the word 'all' with
the words 'most' or 'some.'